Energy security facilitates upstream spending1 March 2023
MEED's upstream oil & gas report also includes: Hydrocarbons exploration rebounds
Middle East and North Africa (Mena) oil and gas producers have stepped up to the challenge of meeting the world’s energy needs, especially since the outbreak of the Russia- Ukraine war in February 2022. Although state-owned and private energy producers alike are motivated by the profitability that high commodity prices bring, supply from the region is critical in addressing global energy security.
Regional hydrocarbons producers spent almost $19bn on upstream projects in 2022 as they sought to swiftly bring additional energy supplies online to offset the impact of the lack of Russian volumes on the global market, and particularly on Europe.
With the larger issue of an effective energy transition taking longer than projected, coupled with the prevailing supply shortage, Mena players have put in place major capital expenditure (capex) plans to boost their long-term oil and gas production potential.
The overall value of Mena oil and gas production projects in various pre-execution stages is more than $125bn, according to regional projects tracker MEED Projects.
Robust upstream spending
Qatar dominated spending on upstream projects for the second year in a row in 2022, accounting for more than a third of the $18.9bn of engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contract awards in the Mena region.
With the goal of consolidating its position as the world’s largest supplier of gas, QatarEnergy is making progress with its North Field liquefied natural gas (LNG) expansion programme, estimated to be worth about $30bn. This will raise Qatar’s LNG production to 126 million tonnes a year (t/y) in two phases by 2027.
The two-stage North Field Production Sustainability (NFPS) programme will run in parallel, to help maintain gas production from the large offshore reserve in order to match the feedstock requirements of the LNG expansion scheme.
QatarEnergy’s biggest award in 2022 was a $4.5bn EPC contract won by Italian contractor Saipem. It covers the building and installation of two gas compression facilities as part of the second development phase of the NFPS project.
The two gas compression complexes covered in the package will weigh 62,000 tonnes and 63,000 tonnes and will be the largest fixed steel jacket compression platforms ever built.
Saudi Aramco allocated a capex budget of $40bn-$50bn for 2022, an increase on the $31.9bn it spent in 2021. The firm came second to QatarEnergy, spending about $5.8bn on upstream EPC contracts in 2022.
Aramco awarded contracts for 11 offshore engineering, procurement, construction and installation (EPCI) tenders during the year to contractors in its Long-Term Agreement (LTA) pool of offshore service providers.
Through these offshore structure refurbishment and modification works, Aramco intends to maintain and enhance the oil and gas production capacity of its Abu Safah, Manifa, Marjan, Qatif and Safaniya fields.
In the first quarter of 2022, Aramco also selected Japanese contractor JGC Corporation for the two main onshore packages of the Zuluf upstream project. Package one is estimated to be the bigger of the two onshore packages, with an approximate contract value of $2bn-$2.5bn. It covers EPC work to build hydrocarbons processing facilities. Package two, covering utilities and water injection facilities, is estimated to be worth about $1bn.
Healthy projects pipeline
With regional energy producers stepping up efforts to achieve their oil and gas output goals more quickly, the level of spending on upstream EPC project contracts this year is expected to increase to almost three times that of 2022.
Iran is still under the weight of economic sanctions and has failed to reach an agreement with Western governments regarding its nuclear programme. Despite this, the country appears to still be striving to increase its oil and gas production levels.
State-owned Pars Oil & Gas Company (POGC) is understood to be moving ahead with a programme to develop the offshore North Pars gas field, estimated to hold reserves of up to 55 trillion cubic feet.
POGC has undertaken a $16bn EPC project, with offshore and onshore components, to start gas production from North Pars. With Tehran suffering from a lack of foreign investment in its energy sector, however, the actual size of the project could shrink significantly and there could be delays to its development timeline.
QatarEnergy, meanwhile, has progressed to the next phase of its North Field LNG expansion programme, known as North Field South (NFS). Contractors submitted commercial bids in February for the estimated $6bn package covering EPCI work on two main LNG trains.
Investing in growth
Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (Adnoc) has adopted a five-year business plan with a capex budget of $150bn for 2023-27. The firm has also said it now aims to meet its oil production capacity target of 5 million barrels a day (b/d) by 2027 instead of 2030.
Having brought its oil and gas production capacity targets forward, Adnoc is accelerating work on key projects. The firm plans to raise gas output by 3 billion cubic feet a day (cf/d) in the next few years, and the Hail and Ghasha offshore sour gas production project will be central to achieving this goal.
In January, Adnoc signed pre-construction service agreements with two consortiums of contractors for the offshore and onshore EPC work on the gas production project, which is estimated to be worth more than $10bn.
France-headquartered Technip Energies, South Korean contractor Samsung Engineering and Italy’s Tecnimont have formed a consortium for the Hail and Ghasha onshore package.
Italian contractor Saipem, Abu Dhabi’s National Petroleum Construction Company and state-owned China Petroleum Engineering & Construction Company will work together on the offshore package.
Under the agreements, which are valued at $80m and $60m for the onshore and offshore packages, respectively, the contractors will perform initial detailed engineering and procurement services for critical long-lead items.
The consortiums will also prepare proposals for the main EPC work on the project, which Adnoc will evaluate on an open-book cost estimate basis.
Production from the Ghasha concession, where the Hail and Ghasha fields are located, is expected to start in 2025, ramping up to more than 1.5 billion cf/d before the end of the decade.
Meanwhile, Saudi Aramco is striving to increase its maximum oil output spare capacity to 13 million b/d by 2027 from about 12 million b/d currently, and raise gas production by 50 per cent by the end of this decade.
To realise these targets, Aramco is expected to significantly raise capex on upstream EPC contracts this year. The company is preparing to award more than $3bn-worth of offshore EPCI deals to its LTA contractors before the end of the first quarter of 2023.
Later this year, Aramco is anticipated to award several more multibillion-dollar offshore EPCI jobs. This will include 10 packages of a project to incrementally increase oil production from the Safaniya offshore oil and gas field in Saudi Arabia – the world’s largest offshore oil field.
Exclusive from Meed
Kuwait cancels oil financing tender
6 June 2023
Region positions itself for sustainable future
6 June 2023
Hospital boost for Jordan construction
5 June 2023
Political deadlock in Lebanon blocks reforms
5 June 2023
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Sports Boulevard to seek construction partner for iconic buildings
6 June 2023
Saudi Arabia’s Sports Boulevard Foundation plans to work with contractors on a collaborative basis for the iconic buildings that are part of the world’s longest park stretching across the centre of Riyadh.
“There are still many infrastructure and iconic building projects in the design stage, and we will be seeking great construction partners to join us on a collaborative basis on this great journey,” said Tony Aikenhead, chief development officer, Sports Boulevard Foundation at MEED’s Saudi Giga Projects conference in Riyadh on 5 June.
Iconic destinations planned for the development include the Sands Sports Park, Amphitheatres, the Centre for Cinematic Arts, the Arts District, the Discovery Park, Wadi Ajyasen, and the Global Sports Tower.
The large-scale project aims to turn the cityscape of central Riyadh, which today is dominated my major highways, into a recreational area. “It is truly a transformational project, which will become the world's longest park at over 135 kilometres in length and help to deliver on the objectives of Vision 2030. Sports Boulevard runs across Riyadh from east to west. That's where the complexity comes in because it's right through the centre of Riyadh along the service corridor,” said Aikenhead.
The project will be spread across different districts within the park. “The Boulevard will be split into street districts to maximise the unique features and attractions that the city has to offer. Each district will deliver a different destination and a different array of opportunities for residents and visitors alike. We are making good early progress in the delivery of these districts. Construction has already begun in the Wadi Hanifa district on the site of the bridge, the arts district, and the promenade. We have also started work on the Prince Turki and King Abdulaziz underpasses,’ said Aikenhead.https://image.digitalinsightresearch.in/uploads/NewsArticle/10916967/main.jpg
Kuwait cancels oil financing tender
6 June 2023
Kuwait’s national oil company Kuwait Petroleum Corporation (KPC) has cancelled its tender for a consultant to study financing options for the country’s state-owned oil and gas companies.
In a statement published by KPC’s Higher Purchase Committee it said that the companies that purchased tender documents are eligible for a refund.
The invitation to bid on the tender was issued on 18 December 2022.
KPC did not give a reason for the cancellation of the tender.
Kuwait has been looking to increase efficiency and restructure its state-owed oil and gas companies for several years.
In 2020, a contract for a study to look into the restructuring was won by UK-based Strategy&, a subsidiary of the financial services company PwC.
The plan was expected to cut costs and merge many of the state-controlled companies in the country’s oil, gas and petrochemicals sector.
At the time, KPC said that the mergers would slash the number of large state-controlled companies in the sector from eight to four.
In 2020, local reports said the Supreme Petroleum Council (SPC) and KPC had already approved plans to restructure the oil sector.
It is thought that the restructuring could have significant benefits for KPC in the long term.
A similar restructuring by Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (Adnoc) helped to open the door for increased foreign investment in the UAE’s energy sector.
After a sweeping restructuring, in December 2017 Adnoc listed 10 per cent of Adnoc Distribution, the largest operator of retail fuel service stations and convenience stores in the UAE. This raised $851m, making it the largest initial public offering in Abu Dhabi in a decade.
In May 2022, KPC said that it was considering selling shares in its downstream subsidiary Kuwait National Petroleum Company (KNPC), with the Higher Purchase Committee tendering a contract for a feasibility study regarding the potential “partial divestment of shares in KNPC”.
At the time, the announcement about the potential share sale from the Higher Purchase Committee surprised many within Kuwait’s oil and gas sector.
Despite Kuwait publicly discussing the restructuring of its oil and gas sector for several years, very little concrete progress has been made towards making the planned mergers.https://image.digitalinsightresearch.in/uploads/NewsArticle/10915058/main.gif
Region positions itself for sustainable future
6 June 2023
At the end of November, the region will host the UN’s climate change conference for the second time in two years. Cop28 in the UAE, like Egypt’s Cop27 last year, will bring world leaders together to discuss energy transition and the fight against climate change.
Arresting climate change will arguably be humankind’s greatest challenge over the coming decades. To succeed, people from all over the world will need to work with each other, which is why events like Cop28 that bring countries together are so important – despite the criticism they can attract.
At the project level, cooperation will also become an increasingly important trend.
This year there are clear signs that governments are jointly working on projects that will contribute to the fight against climate change.
Some of the best examples are in the transmission and distribution sector. In recent months, significant steps have been taken across a range of interconnection projects to link countries’ electricity grids.
Efficiency is the main driver for these projects. Particularly for GCC nations, the capacity to obtain large-scale solar energy affordably, combined with the marked differences in peak energy demands between the colder and hotter months, frequently leads to considerable surplus capacity.
Smoothing out these peaks and troughs as part of a larger regional or international grid also means less power generation is required and reduced carbon emissions.
As the shared challenge of climate change rises up the global agenda, more projects that pool resources, share expertise, and transcend borders and politics will be needed.
From regional collaborations on electricity grid interconnections to international climate conferences, the region is positioning itself at the centre of a more collaborative and sustainable future.
This package includes:
> Region plans vital big grid connections
> Soaring data demand drives boom
> Read the June 2023 MEED Business Reviewhttps://image.digitalinsightresearch.in/uploads/NewsArticle/10910825/main.gif
Hospital boost for Jordan construction
5 June 2023
This package on Jordan's construction sector also includes:
> Egis selected for Jordan hospital project
> Jordan's largest construction project to move onsite
> Hill wins work on Saudi-backed hospital project in Jordan
> PIF to invest $24bn in six Mena countries
Jordan’s construction sector will get a major boost this year as the country’s largest project prepares to move onsite over the summer after the first phase of its masterplan has been finalised.
The $400m hospital project is being developed by the Saudi Jordanian Fund for Medical and Educational Investments Company (SJFMEI) on a build-operate-transfer (BOT) basis.
For the hospital project, SJFMEI appointed US-based Hill International in partnership with the local sub-consultant Dar al-Omran to provide project construction management services last year. The project team is now preparing to tender construction contracts.
“We have completed the first phase of the masterplan,” Said Mneimne, senior vice-president of Hill International, told MEED in an interview.
“This summer, we will appoint a contractor for the enabling works. We will then appoint a contractor for the foundations and the structure,” he added.
The scale of the project is a challenge for Jordan’s construction sector, and an international engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contractor may be needed to deliver the project.
“We have not yet decided what the contracting strategy will be,” Mneimne said.
The project involves the construction of a university hospital with 330 beds, 72 outpatient clinics, a children’s hospital, and a medical school with a total capacity of 600 students and a projected annual intake of 100 students.
The project also includes five medical centres of excellence focused on disciplines such as cardiology, oncology, neurology, gastroenterology and orthopaedics. There will also be four scientific research centres in genomics and precision medicine, stem cells and regenerative medicine, health systems and public health, and bioinformatics.
The built-up area is estimated at 110,000 square metres. It will be located on the airport road, near the Ghamadan area on the outskirts of Amman.
A joint venture of Lebanon’s Dar al-Handasah (Shair & Partners) and Perkins & Will was appointed for the engineering design and supervision services.
SJFMEI is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Saudi Jordanian Investment Fund (SJIF). Saudi Arabia’s Public Investment Fund (PIF) owns 95 per cent of the fund, while Jordanian banks hold the remaining 5 per cent.
Ownership of the project will be transferred to the Jordanian government after the end of the investment period.
The hospital is the largest active standalone project in Jordan, according to regional projects tracker MEED Projects. The second-largest project is the estimated $228m King Hussein Bridge Terminal and Freight Yard project, which is at the prequalification stage.
Major projects are needed after a disappointing decade for Jordan’s construction sector.
Data from MEED Projects shows a fluctuating trend in the value of construction and transport contracts awarded in Jordan over the past 10 years.
In 2013, the total value stood at $1.429bn. A sharp rise in 2014 to $2.475bn marked the peak of contract awards during the period.
A steep fall was witnessed in the subsequent years, with the total value plunging to just $662m in 2015, a dramatic decrease of nearly 73 per cent from the previous year. This downward trajectory continued, with the value plummeting further to a record low of $79m in 2020 amid the global economic disruption caused by the Covid-19 pandemic.
A closer look at the data indicates periods of minor recovery, notably in 2017, when contract awards rose to $866m, following a particularly poor performance in 2016 at just $159m.
Despite these rebounds, the overall trend illustrates a declining construction and transport sector in Jordan, with the years 2021 and 2022 recording values of $32m and $86m, respectively, a stark contrast to the highs of 2013 and 2014.
The fluctuating values in contract awards reveal the industry’s volatility over the past decade, linked to regional instability, economic downturns and global disruptions including the Covid-19 pandemic.https://image.digitalinsightresearch.in/uploads/NewsArticle/10914437/main.gif
Political deadlock in Lebanon blocks reforms
5 June 2023
Lebanon’s political deadlock is likely to continue to weigh on the country’s economy and undermine security over the medium term, according to experts.
The country currently has an interim government and has been without a president since former President Michel Aoun’s term ended at the end of October last year.
Progress towards forming a new government is likely to be slow, with the legislature divided over who should replace Aoun as president.
In March, the Iran-backed Hezbollah group and House Speaker Nabih Berri’s Amal Movement party – which together constitute Lebanon’s Shia base – announced their support for the Christian politician Sleiman Frangieh.
Hezbollah and its allies have since tried to gather support for Frangieh as president, but strong opposition from the majority of the country’s Christian, Sunni and Druze political blocs has left him short of the 65 votes required to be elected in the 128-member legislature.
Over recent weeks, members of Lebanon’s parliament that oppose Frangieh have started to rally around the former finance minister Jihad Azour.
Azour currently serves as the director of the Middle East and Central Asia Department at the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
As the parliament is divided, whether either candidate can obtain a majority vote remains uncertain. According to experts, even if a president is named, it will be extremely difficult for them to form a government.
Nicholas Blanford, a non-resident senior fellow with the Atlantic Council’s Middle East programmes, says it will likely be some time before a government is formed.
“Getting a president elected is only the first step,” he said. “Once the new president is in place, there is the tricky task of forming a new government.
“As we’ve seen over the past 20 years, forming a new government can take months as people bicker and jostle for various lucrative and influential portfolios.”
Barbara Leaf, the US assistant secretary for Near Eastern affairs, said on 31 May, during a Senate committee hearing, that the Biden administration was considering sanctions if a new president is not elected soon
Only when a government has been formed will Lebanon be able to start initiating the series of reforms that the international community has demanded to unlock aid, grants and loans to try to put the country on the path to economic recovery.
As Lebanon’s economic crisis has worsened and the security situation has declined, increasing pressure has been applied from other countries that want to try to restore stability in the region.
Barbara Leaf, the US assistant secretary for Near Eastern affairs, said on 31 May, during a Senate committee hearing, that the Biden administration was considering sanctions if a new president is not elected soon.
Separately, two members of the US House Foreign Affairs Committee called on the administration to impose sanctions on individuals involved in corruption to “make clear to Lebanon’s political class that the status quo is not acceptable”.
In a letter to Secretary of State Antony Blinken on 30 May, they said: “We also call on the administration to continue pressing for full accountability for the August 2020 Beirut port blast and support independent, international investigatory efforts into egregious fraud and malfeasance by the governor of Lebanon’s central bank.
They added: “We must not allow Lebanon to be held hostage by those looking to advance their own selfish interests.”
French officials have also taken action to try to crack down on perceived corruption by members of Lebanon’s political elite.
In May, French prosecutors issued an arrest warrant for Lebanon’s central bank governor, Riad Salameh.
The warrant followed Salameh’s failure to appear before French prosecutors to be questioned on corruption charges.
In response, Salameh issued a statement saying that the arrest warrant violated the law.
Salameh has been the target of a series of judicial investigations at home and abroad on allegations that include fraud, money laundering and illicit enrichment.
European investigators looking into the fortune he has amassed during three decades in the job had scheduled a hearing in Paris for 16 May.
A key problem is you still have the same cabal of oligarchs in power and it is likely they will still be represented in the next government
Nicholas Blanford, Atlantic Council’s Middle East programmes
Breaking the deadlock
Analysts believe cracking down on corruption among Lebanon’s political elite is key to breaking the country’s political deadlock.
“A key problem is that you still have the same cabal of oligarchs in power and it is likely that they will still be represented in the next government,” said Blanford. “These oligarchs do not want reform because if they implement a meaningful reform process, they run the risk of losing their positions of power.”
While the country’s opposing political blocs continue to vie for power and the formation of a new government seemingly remains only possible after at least several months of negotiations, the outlook for Lebanon in the short term looks bleak.
Meaningful government assistance for Lebanese citizens struggling with declining security and heightened economic pressures remains a distant prospect. High levels of emigration are also likely to continue as the country’s population seeks relief from the hardships at home.https://image.digitalinsightresearch.in/uploads/NewsArticle/10907713/main.gif